Let’s Look at Slides #3

Let’s Look at Slides #3

20170720_144550 - Copy - Copy (2)

*Make sure you read the previous posts*

Let’s continue!

ABBREVIATION MEANING
wm Whole mount (entire specimen or organism)
st Stained
ls Longitudinal section
cs Cross-section
sec Section
sm Smear
sq Squashed preparation

38. Lilium Anther (c.s.):

Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the world. Most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere, though their range extends into the northern subtropics. Many other plants have “lily” in their common name but are not related to true lilies.

And the Anther is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium:

Anther/Stamen

20170724_162148

40x

39. Lilium Ovary (c.s.):

You probably know what an ovary of a plant is. Ok, I can explain:

In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. Specifically, it is the part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. The pistil may be made up of one carpel or of several fused carpels (e.g. dicarpel or tricarpel), and therefore the ovary can contain part of one carpel or parts of several fused carpels. Above the ovary is the style and the stigma, which is where the pollen lands and germinates to grow down through the style to the ovary, and, for each individual pollen grain, to fertilize one individual ovule. Some wind pollinated flowers have much reduced and modified ovaries.

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40x

40. Marchantia Mature Sporophyte (l.s.):

Marchantia is a genus in the family Marchantiaceae of the order Marchantiales, a group of liverworts.

The Marchantia shows differentiation into two layers: an upper assimilatory region and a lower storage region with a well-defined upper epidermis with air channels . The thallus features tiny cup-like structures called gemmae cups, which are used for asexual reproduction. The combination of barrel-shaped pores and gemmae cups are diagnostic of the genus.

Multicellular purple colored scales and unicellula rhizoids are present on the ventral surface of the thallus.

They look like this:MarchantiaPolymorpha.jpg

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40x

This one isn’t that great. Ignore this one.

41. Meiosis-Lillitrm Pollen (w.m.):

Umm, I don’t know what this is. Ignore this one too!

20170724_162426

42. Mitosis-Onion Root Tip (l.s.):

20170724_162759

43. Mixed Bacteria Smear:

Yes!!! Now this is a good one!

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400x

20170724_162905

400x

Look at the lovely bacteria. So cool.

44. Mosquito Larva (w.m.):

The mosquito larva has a well-developed head with mouth brushes used for feeding, a large thorax with no legs, and a segmented abdomen.

Larvae breathe through spiracles located on their eighth abdominal segments, or through a siphon, so must come to the surface frequently. The larvae spend most of their time feeding on algae, bacteria, and other microbes in the surface microlayer.

They dive below the surface only when disturbed. Larvae swim either through propulsion with their mouth brushes, or by jerky movements of their entire bodies, giving them the common name of “wigglers” or “wrigglers”.

Larvae develop through four stages, or instars, after which they metamorphose into pupae. At the end of each instar, the larvae molt, shedding their skins to allow for further growth.

20170724_163001

tail (40x)

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head (40x)

45. Mosquito Wings (w.m.):

20170724_16311020170724_163121

46. Nervous Tissue (sec.):

Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system(PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity. It is composed of neurons, or nerve cells, which receive and transmit impulses, and neuroglia, also known as glial cells or more commonly as just glia (from the Greek, meaning glue), which assist the propagation of the nerve impulse as well as providing nutrients to the neuron.

Nervous tissue is made up of different types of nerve cells, all of which have an axon, the long stem-like part of the cell that sends action potential signals to the next cell. Bundles of axons make up the nerves.

Functions of the nervous system are sensory input, integration, control of muscles and glandshomeostasis, and mental activity.

20170724_163135

20170724_163158

40x

20170724_163218

400x

47. Onion Epidermis (w.m.):

The epidermis is the outer of the two layers that make up the skin (or cutis; Greek δέρμα derma), the inner layer being the dermis. It provides a barrier to infection from environmental pathogens and regulates the amount of water released from the body into the atmosphere through transepidermal water loss(TEWL). The outermost part of the epidermis is composed of stratified layers of flattened cells, that overlies a basal layer (stratum basale) composed of columnar cells arranged perpendicularly.

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100x

48. Paramecium (w.m.):

Paramecium is a genus of unicellular ciliates, commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group. Paramecia are widespread in freshwater, brackish, and marine environments and are often very abundant in stagnant basins and ponds. Because some species are readily cultivated and easily induced to conjugate and divide, it has been widely used in classrooms and laboratories to study biological processes. Its usefulness as a model organism has caused one ciliate researcher to characterize it as the “white rat” of the phylum Ciliophora.

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40x

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400x

 

 

49. Pig Motor Nerve (w.m.):

A motor nerve is a nerve that carries command information out of the central nervous system (CNS) and toward effectors (muscles or glands) that will execute the commands. It is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of efferent nerve fibers (the axons of motor neurons) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). These fibers link processing circuits in the CNS to the body parts that will carry out the CNS’s decisions (conscious and unconscious). Motor nerves are often paired with sensory nerves, which are bundles of afferent nerve fibers that travel from the PNS to the CNS.

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40x

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100x

 

50. Pine Leaf (c.s.):

 

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40x

 

51. Pine Root (c.s.):

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40x

52. Pine Stem (c.s.):

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40x

53. Pine Young Staminate cone (l.s.):

A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. The familiar woody cone is the female cone, which produces seeds. The male cones, which produce pollen, are usually herbaceous and much less conspicuous even at full maturity. The name “cone” derives from the fact that the shape in some species resembles a geometric cone. The individual plates of a cone are known as scales.

The male cone (microstrobilus or pollen cone) is structurally similar across all conifers, differing only in small ways (mostly in scale arrangement) from species to species. Extending out from a central axis are microsporophylls (modified leaves). Under each microsporophyll is one or several microsporangia (pollen sacs).

The female cone (megastrobilus, seed cone, or ovulate cone) contains ovules which, when fertilized by pollen, become seeds. The female cone structure varies more markedly between the different conifer families, and is often crucial for the identification of many species of conifers.

 

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40x

 

54. Pollen Gem (w.m.):

I don’t know what this is.

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100x

 

55. Pome Sclereid (w.m.):

Sclereids are a reduced form of sclerenchyma cells with highly thickened, lignified cellular walls that form small bundles of durable layers of tissue in most plantsThe presence of numerous sclereids form the cores of apples and produce the gritty texture of pears.

Although sclereids are variable in shape, the cells are generally isodiametric, prosenchymatic, forked or elaborately branched. They can be grouped into bundles, can form complete tubes located at the periphery or can occur as single cells or small groups of cells within parenchyma tissues.

When compared with most fibres, sclereids are relatively short. Characteristic examples are brachysclereids or the stone cells(called stone cells because of their hardness) of pears (Pyrus communis) and quinces (Cydonia oblonga) and those of the shoot of the wax plant (Hoya carnosa). The cell walls fill nearly all the cell’s volume. A layering of the walls and the existence of branched pits is clearly visible. Branched pits such as these are called ramiform pits. The shell of many seeds like those of nuts as well as the stones of drupes like cherries or plums are made up from sclereids.

These structures are used to protect other cells.

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100x

 

56. Pumpkin Stem (c.s.):

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40x

57. Rabbit Arteriole (c.s.):

An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.

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100x

 

58. Rabbit Blood Smear:

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400x

Yay! it’s the red blood cells again!

Did you learn anything? Tell me in the comment section↓

Sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lilium

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marchantia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito#Larva

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nervous_tissue

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_nerve

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conifer_cone

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sclereid

About Dan the Young Scientist

Science is my Life!
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