How to Calculate Molar Mass

How to Calculate Molar Mass Moles are a unit of measurement of chemicals. A mole is the atomic weight of a molecule of the chemical in grams and it is used very commonly in chemistry, so I’m going to show you how to calculate molar mass. You can find the molar mass right on the periodic table. On the table, there is the element symbol, the […]

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How to make Basic Copper Carbonate

How to make Basic Copper Carbonate Sometimes, I’m missing a couple of chemicals. The way to fix that problem is simply ordering them online, but I need it right now. So I decided to make my own chemicals by following procedures from the internet. For the first one, I’m going to be making basic copper carbonate (CuCo3). First, I added […]

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Making a Mercury Switch

Making a Mercury Switch Remember that experiment about mercury? I tried to show you that mercury can conduct electricity. And it did. I studied it a little bit more and I found this: A Simple (Tilt) Mercury Switch: It’s similar to the one we did the last time. Instead of tilting it around, what if you suck the mercury in […]

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Making Naphthalene Crystals

Making Naphthalene Crystals I realized that time passes so fast, it was about a week since I made a new post. I feel like it has been for only 3 days. Anyways, let’s get started with the post. I’ll try to make Naphthalene crystals. Naphthalene is a white crystalline solid with a characteristic odor. It’s melting point is about 80°C. […]

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Turning a Coin to Silver and Gold (Simple Redox Reaction)

Turning a Coin to Silver and Gold (Simple Redox Reaction) This simple experiment will make you understand the redox reaction. This is one of my favorite experiments so I decided to make a post about it. Things you’ll need: a copper coin (a penny, basically), zinc powder, sodium hydroxide (more than 50%), alcohol lamp, forceps, and a beaker. Pour Sodium Hydroxide into a beaker and pour some zinc dust in it, enough to cover the coin. Put the coin the beaker and wait for a couple hours, I’ll be using my country’s copper coin.   Take the coin out with forceps and wash it with water, now you have a silver coin. If you want to continue, do the following steps: Make sure the coin is dry. Heat it up with an alcohol lamp until it’s yellow. Enjoy. An oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction is a type of chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons between two chemicals. A redox reaction is any chemical reaction in which the oxidation number of a molecule, ion, or atom changes by losing or gaining an electron. For example, like this experiment, the zinc transferred its ions to the copper; that’s how the coin turned silver, and that’s why this is a redox reaction. What about turning it to gold? The color of silver and copper are just mixing together when heated and that makes the gold color.

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Do Water Vapors Effect the Mass of Copper (II) Sulfate?

Do Water Vapors Effect the Mass of Copper (II) Sulfate? The pentahydrate form, which is blue, is heated, turning the copper sulfate into the anhydrous form which is white, while the water that was present in the pentahydrate form evaporates. I wanted to know if water vapors affect the mass of copper sulfate. Things you’ll need: crucible, balance, Copper (II) Sulphate, spoon, alcohol lamp, […]

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Does Mercury Conduct Electricity?

Does Mercury Conduct Electricity? I bought this from my science shop yesterday so that I could perform more experiments. Why is it a liquid? The reason for mercury being a liquid is complex. It is heavy; a chunk of iron can float on mercury. Compared to other metals, it does not conduct heat well. However, it conducts electricity fairly well. Mercury is the only metal that is a liquid at normal […]

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Copper Plating: Part #1

Copper Plating: Part #1 I’ve never used a copper stick in one of my experiments, I found out that I’m good at plating, which is what we’re going to be doing in this post. You probably wondering why my copper is a green, it’s because of chemical reactions with the elements. Just as iron that is left unprotected in the […]

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Warm Chemistry

Warm Chemistry After that long break, I would like to do a very simple experiment to start. This one is pretty common, most people probably know this experiment, but no one realized that there was more to it. Things you’ll need: Yeast, hydrogen peroxide, a beaker, and a thermometer. Pour 200 ml of hydrogen peroxide into a beaker. Insert the […]

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What is Silica Gel?

What is Silica Gel? Silica gel is a granular, vitreous, porous form of silicon dioxide made synthetically from sodium silicate. Silica gel contains a nano-porous silica micro-structure, suspended inside a liquid. Most applications of silica gel require it to be dried, in which case it is called silica xerogel. For practical purposes, silica gel is often interchangeable with silica xerogel. Silica xerogel is tough and hard; it is […]

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I Found the Answer

I Found the Answer Finally, I found what this is: I cracked one of the tiny stones and the inside was black: I guess the color has been covered by some other minerals or the color on the outside has been changed from weathering. Remember, the color of magnetite is always black. Also, I did the streak test. The “streak test” […]

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Melting #2: Copper (II) Sulfate (Didn’t Work)

Melting #2: Copper (II) Sulfate (Didn’t Work) The last time we melted sulfur, and it was really fun (except for cleaning the test tube). Now let’s melt something else, what about Copper Sulfate? Copper (II) sulfate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4. Older names for this compound include blue vitriol, bluestone, vitriol of copper, and Roman vitriol. The pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue. Melting Point: 110 °C (230 °F) Sulfur’s melting point is 5 °C higher (which means they’ll melt about the same time). It looks impossible to melt it because the sulfur is more (soft) like a powder, but this one is tiny crystals. Let’s give it a try anyway. Light the lamp! OK, it’s heating it up nicely. A couple minutes later: The copper sulfate is turning whiter, but still, all of it still remains solid. But look. There’s water vapor in there. That’s weird, maybe there’s too much heat? But the sulfate didn’t melt yet. 10 minutes later: The sulfur melted already at this time. But the sulfate still remains a solid and it’s just turning whiter. 20 minutes later: This is taking forever! It’s not melting. Did I do something wrong? It’s 115 °C already, and the temperature can go further. I guess it won’t melt anymore so I turned off the heat. Wow! this experiment is a fail. I wonder why it has water vapors? Why is it turning white? When is it actually going to turn to liquid? Any ideas why it didn’t […]

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Melting #1: Sulfur (Making a Sulfur Coin)

Melting #1: Sulfur (Making a Sulfur Coin) I’m going to be melting sulfur… Sulfur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Sulfur Melting Point: 115 °C ( 239.38 °F) Yay! the sulfur is melting! It took about 10 minutes to melt the sulfur. Now time to pour it into the mold! OK, the sulfur hardened. Time to take it out the mold. I used a hammer to take it out. No! that’s the ugly side. The better side is this:   Wow, I’m actually impressed. You’re probably wondering why the sulfur is brown. Just wait a couple days and the coin will turn yellow. But once it turned yellow, it has a chance to crumble in a month. Because sulfur crystallization is a complicated process. The time it takes is mostly determined by the temperatures the substance was subjected to initially. I’ll be making another post to show you how the color changed. Hope you enjoyed the experiment if you did, drop a like on the bottom ↓ Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur https://melscience.com/en/experiments/sulfur-melt/    

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I Figured out why the Coins look Different

I Figured out why the Coins look Different Remember the coin experiment that I performed lately? When I washed the coins, they looked different. But why? I finally figured out the answer. Copper metal is oxidized by the Ag1+ to Cu2+ and the Ag1+ ions are reduced by the copper metal to silver metal. But do you remember what the coins are made of? Penny: The alloy remained 95 percent copper and 5 percent zinc until 1982, when the composition was changed to 97.5 percent zinc and 2.5 percent copper (copper-plated zinc) until now. Cents of both compositions appeared in that year. 50 Satang (Thai baht): The core is 99% iron and cladding is 99% Copper. 10 Yen (Japanese Yen): 95% copper, 3–4% zinc, and 1–2% tin. The Penny turned yellow-orange because the zinc was mixed with copper. The Thai coin turned darker because of the iron. The Japanese coin turned yellow because of the zinc and tin. Tin is light yellow and zinc is gray. I hope you enjoyed that experiment, if you did, comment down below ↓ Sources: www.chem.indiana.edu/faculty…/5-5%20Silver%20Tree%20Redox%20Reaction.doc More sources at: The Silver Coin    

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Is this Iron or Magnetite?

Is this Iron or Magnetite? Today I wanted to identify this brown dust. I found the dust by me. I accidentally dropped a magnet on the ground and the dust sticks to the magnet. So I collected it to perform some experiments with it. So in this post, I’m going to identify this dust. Let’s perform some tests. This dust could […]

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The Silver Coin

The Silver Coin What about this experiment? Remember the silver tree? That was a great experiment. Go over there and check it out (here: https://danupondrake.com/2017/06/25/the-silver-tree/). The silver nitrate will stick to the copper coil and make crystals. But instead of copper coils, why don’t we try copper coins? It will be fun to try! Let’s get started then! Let’s some […]

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Golden Rain

 Golden Rain The silver tree was beautiful, now let’s perform a golden experiment.  This experiment kind of failed and pass. What I mean is that the experiment failed, and it was a success, you know what I mean. So don’t trust my steps, but be sure to follow the video at the end of this post. This experiment is hard. Even […]

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Color Change Chemistry 3

Color Change Chemistry 3 On the second and first experiments, I used chemicals. But this time, I’m going to use grapes. Grapes contain a pigment molecule called flavin (an anthocyanin). This water-soluble pigment is also found in apple skin, plums, poppies, cornflowers, and red cabbage. Things you’ll need: Black grapes, alcohol lamp, beaker, water, test tubes, test tube holder, vinegar, […]

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Separating Salt out of Water

Separating Salt out of Water Salt (NaCl) is a natural mineral made up of white cube-shaped crystals composed of two elements, sodium, and chlorine. It is translucent, colorless, odorless (officially, though we think you can smell the freshness of the sea in one of our boxes) and has a distinctive and characteristic taste. Salt occurs naturally in many parts of […]

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Elephant’s Toothpaste

Elephant’s toothpaste Today I’m going to do this common experiment that is used in chemistry classes called the elephant’s toothpaste. Elephant’s toothpaste is a foamy substance caused by the rapid decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. This is often used for classroom demonstrations because it requires only a small number of ingredients and makes a “volcano of foam”. Things you’ll need: a plastic container (as shown […]

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The Silver Tree

The Silver Tree As said on my post (it finally came 2) the silver nitrate is only 10 grams and it’s about $20. 10 grams is a little amount and it is very expensive, so I hope I don’t make any mistakes. The classic silver tree demonstration! Very simple to set up and perform, it’s great to introduce kids to […]

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The Sediment of Lead (II) Nitrate

The Sediment of Lead (II) Nitrate Today, I’m going to do a common experiment about the sediment of Lead (II) Nitrate. This is a very quick demonstration showing that two solids can react together. White lead nitrate and white potassium iodide react to make yellow lead iodide. I added 5 grams of each chemical into 95ml  of water so I could have 5 % of each. I pour 10ml of […]

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Changing Iron to Copper

Changing Iron to Copper In this post, I’m going to show you how to change iron to copper in two easy steps.   Things you’ll need: copper (II) sulfate, a cup, a spoon, water, and nails or paper clips. Pour water into the cup. Put lots of copper sulfate into the cup. I put two spoons. Drop a paper clip […]

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Color Change Chemistry

Color Change Chemistry Change a clear liquid pink, then back to clear again in this impressive experiment. It may seem like magic, but it’s actually the science of PH. Things you’ll need: a beaker, a graduated cylinder, test tube holder, 3 test tubes, pipet, phenolphthalein, sodium carbonate, vinegar, and water. Fill the beaker halfway with water, and set the test […]

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Density Column

Density Column Let’s start off with an easy experiment today. Create a colorful column with three liquids stacked on top of each other inside a test tube. Things you’ll need: test tubes, pipet, food coloring, light or dark corn syrup, vegetable oil, and water. Pour about 3 ml of corn syrup into the test tube. Use a pipet to add […]

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How to make a Lava Lamp

How to make a Lava Lamp Well, you’re probably not interested in this post because you could just search the internet and find the same steps of this experiment. But the only thing good about this is that I will explain the science of this experiment. So let’s get started. Things you’ll need: a flask, a beaker, Alka-Seltzer tablets (I […]

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Cold Chemistry

Cold Chemistry Endothermic chemical reaction use up heat energy, which means the end result is cool to the touch. Use Alka-Seltzer to see this reaction for yourself! Things you’ll need: A beaker, a thermometer, an Alka-Seltzer tablet, ice, and water. Fill the beaker with ice. Add enough water to cover the ice fully. Put the thermometer in the beaker and read […]

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Slimes and States of Matter

How to make Slime in Three Steps (and states of matter) I’ll show you how to make slime in the easiest way. It’s going to be messy but it’s worth to try. Things you’ll need: Borax, water, a spoon, school glue, and two cups. Add one teaspoon of borax to 75ml of water into the cup and stir until all […]

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Invisible ink

Invisible ink We know that phenolphthalein will turn pink if you drip 2-3 drops into a chemical that is base. That gave me an idea of how to make invisible ink. Things you’ll need: phenolphthalein solution, white paper, Q-tip, and ammonia-based glass cleaner (like Windex) Put a few drops of phenolphthalein onto a Q-tip. Use the Q-tip as your pen to […]

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What is Xylitol

What is Xylitol Xylitol is a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener. It has the formula CH2OH(CHOH)3CH2OH. Xylitol is categorized as polyalcohol or sugar alcohol, and it has some dental benefits in that it reduces cavities. One gram of xylitol contains 2.43 kilocalories (kcal), as compared to one gram of sugar, which has 3.87 kcal. Xylitol has virtually no aftertaste. […]

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Swirling Colors

Swirling Colors Can you make colors move in milk? Then perform this experiment. Things you’ll need: whole milk, a shallow dish, food coloring, and liquid dish soap. 1. Pour whole milk into the shallow dish.2. Let the milk warm up to room temperature. 3. Place drops of different food coloring in the milk. DO NOT STIR. 4. Place 1-3 drops of […]

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